7鳄梨营养成分,热量和益处

鳄梨的营养与事实
鳄梨的营养与事实

鳄梨在过去十年中已经越来越受欢迎,这是有原因的。

在Instagram上,有超过1千万条带有主题标签的帖子“avocado” with inspiring photos of 鳄梨 on toast to perfectly sculpted in the shape of roses.

它们已经变得如此流行,以至于当他们开始吃固体食物时,它通常是第一种引入婴儿的食物。

最近关于潜在短缺的警告甚至成为了全国新闻。

The nutrition benefits of 鳄梨s is a list that is growing.

众所周知,它是一种富含脂肪和卡路里的水果,现在被推广用于其中所含脂肪的健康类型。

它还富含纤维,维生素,矿物质和抗氧化剂,可促进健康。

The heightened popularity of 鳄梨s has coincided with a shift in what is considered healthy eating and good nutrition.

旧的低脂,高碳水化合物(LFHC)饮食已稍作调整,以使碳水化合物的摄入量更加适中(强调全谷类),其中包括更多的脂肪–只要它是健康的脂肪来源(单不饱和脂肪和多不饱和脂肪)即可。

This 文章 reviews 鳄梨 nutrition facts, how they fit within guidelines for Americans, and ways that they may help promote health.

鳄梨的营养成分

鳄梨是一种能量密集的水果,根据其大小,可提供215-220卡路里的热量。

Hass 鳄梨s are the most popular type consumed in the United States. There are Florida 鳄梨s that are much larger and may provide up to 500 calories.

The following nutrition facts below are based on one medium California 鳄梨 (136 grams).

  • 卡路里: 218
  • 蛋白: 2.72克 
  • 总脂肪: 19.9 g
  • 饱和脂肪: 2.89 g
  • 多不饱和脂肪: 2.47 g
  • 碳水化合物: 11.6 g
  • 糖: 0.898克
  • 维生素C: 13.6mg
  • 维生素E: 2.82毫克

鳄梨中的卡路里来自脂肪,碳水化合物和蛋白质。鳄梨的蛋白质很少(2.72克),而大部分热量来自脂肪(19.9克)。

The fat in 鳄梨s is considered good fats (polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat).

About 70% of the fat in 鳄梨 is from monounsaturated fat (13.3 grams and mostly oleic acid) and there is very little saturated fat (2.89 grams).

鳄梨的高脂肪含量有助于某些微量营养素的生物利用度,因为脂溶性维生素(维生素A,维生素D,维生素E和维生素K)需要脂肪吸收。

The total carbohydrate (11.6 grams) that is in 鳄梨s is mostly dietary fiber (9.11 grams) and there is minimal sugar (0.898 grams) in an 鳄梨.

膳食纤维是碳水化合物的一种不可消化的形式。

Since 鳄梨s are a fruit and are plant-based, they are cholesterol-free. Cholesterol is only found in animal products.

Additionally, 鳄梨s contain vitamins and minerals.

它们是维生素C(13.6 mg),维生素E(2.82 mg),维生素K(28.6 mcg),泛酸(2 mg),叶酸(110 mcg)和维生素B6(0.35 mg)的重要来源。

鳄梨的钾(660毫克)比香蕉多,是镁(39.4毫克)的良好来源。

鳄梨还含有大量的叶黄素和玉米黄质(对眼睛健康至关重要的抗氧化剂)(369 mpg)(1、2)。

为什么鳄梨对您有好处?

番石榴脂肪果
关卡

Incorporating 鳄梨 into your diet may offer many health benefits.

1.饮食

美国人的饮食指南(3)和美国心脏协会(4)均建议摄入更多的水果和蔬菜。

他们还建议限制饱和脂肪并使用更多 单不饱和脂肪.

鳄梨是一种含有更健康的单不饱和脂肪的水果。

Research suggests that 鳄梨 consumers tend to have better diet quality and less risk of metabolic syndrome.

他们得到更多的纤维, 维生素K, 维生素E, 钾盐和饮食中的镁。它们还具有较高的良好胆固醇含量,较低的体重和体重指数以及较低的腰围。

It is important to note that the association does not necessarily mean that the 鳄梨 intake caused these changes.

这些消费者总体上可能更注重健康,导致了这些差异(5)。

2.预防心脏病

鳄梨中的健康脂肪已显示可降低总胆固醇水平,LDL胆固醇水平(不良胆固醇)和甘油三酸酯,但可提高HDL胆固醇水平(良好胆固醇)(2,6,7,8)。

Saturated fat should be avoided for heart health and 鳄梨s have very little saturated fat.

鳄梨还可以帮助满足纤维摄入建议。纤维可以通过控制血压和胆固醇水平来帮助预防心脏病。男性每天应摄取30-38克,女性每天应摄取21-25克。

鳄梨中的B族维生素(叶酸和维生素B6)可能有助于保持高半胱氨酸水平。高半胱氨酸水平与心脏病风险增加有关(2)。

3.预防高血压

鳄梨可以掺入DASH(饮食方法来控制高血压)饮食中。

血压升高会导致高血压。这种饮食在很大程度上依赖于水果和蔬菜的摄入,并已被证明可以改善高血压(9)。

鳄梨含有大量的钾和镁,这对控制高血压很重要。

它们还含有极少量的钠,对于高血压患者应限制营养。

4.减肥

鳄梨还可以帮助控制体重。

Avocado consumers had lower weights and body mass indexes compared to study participants that did not consume 鳄梨 (5,10).

Studies that included 鳄梨 in a meal resulted in reports of increased satiety and greater feelings of fullness.

Including 1/2 an 鳄梨 also resulted in feeling full for a longer amount of time (11, 12).

当用鳄梨代替一顿食物中的碳水化合物时,餐后血糖水平和胰岛素峰值降低(12、13)。这可能与鳄梨中的脂肪和膳食纤维含量有关。

5.糖尿病管理 

糖尿病的治疗针对体重控制,血糖控制和继发疾病的预防。

糖尿病患者患心脏病的风险更高。

The reasons that 鳄梨s are good for 减肥 and heart health are also applicable here.

一项针对糖尿病患者的研究发现,富含鳄梨的饮食(与低脂肪,高碳水化合物的饮食相比)可降低甘油三酸酯水平,但不影响葡萄糖水平和其他脂质分布指标(2)。

6.预防癌症

It has been suggested that 鳄梨s could have a role in cancer prevention.

与其他水果相比,鳄梨的谷胱甘肽(抗氧化剂)含量更高。

谷胱甘肽摄入量增加与癌症风险降低相关(2)。

Studies are still needed to determine if 鳄梨s could in fact prevent certain types of cancer.

7.认知健康的改善

Lutein has been studied for its role in cognitive health. A study found higher blood levels of lutein in healthy volunteers that consumed one 鳄梨 per day.

通过认知测试可以看到更好的注意力和记忆力(14)。

每天吃鳄梨是否健康?

鳄梨可以成为健康饮食的一部分,并有助于您摄入水果和蔬菜。

鳄梨营养丰富,可提供健康的脂肪,纤维,维生素c,维生素e,维生素k,叶酸,钾和叶黄素。

它们的营养素含量较低,例如饱和脂肪,胆固醇和糖分。

对鳄梨的研究每天包括从1/2到1-1 / 2的鳄梨,而且没有研究报告称体重增加是摄入鳄梨的不良副作用。

If you enjoy them, there is no harm to eating a portion of 鳄梨 daily.

但是,仍然建议从各种水果和蔬菜中获取所有营养。

鳄梨何时不适合您?

As with any food, it is possible to overdo it and eat too much of one particular food. A single serving is considered to be 1/3 of an 鳄梨.

尽管研究中使用的量更大,但仍应谨慎避免摄入过多。如果减肥或控制体重是您的目标,那就尤其如此。

鳄梨能让您增重吗?

When 鳄梨 was used in addition or in place of carbohydrate in studies, it did not result in weight gain.

没有证据表明,进食一个人会使体重增加。但是我们确实知道,摄入的卡路里超过使用的卡路里会导致体重增加。

So if you are eating 2 or more 鳄梨s daily this could easily add 500 or more calories to your daily intake from one item.

与往常一样,份量很重要。

有哪些健康方法可以在饮食中添加鳄梨?

Avocados are not just for guacamole anymore. Try incorporating 1/3-1/2 of 鳄梨 通过 :

  • 早上加烤面包
  • 加上蔬菜色拉
  • 融入健康的冰沙
  • 顶上您最喜欢的辣椒或汤
  • 切片添加到三明治
  • 用辣椒粉覆盖炒鸡蛋
  • 享受炸玉米饼

最后的话

鳄梨是一种健康食品,可以包含在您的日常营养中,并有助于满足美国人饮食指南中的建议。

鳄梨含有丰富的营养物质,可能有助于 减肥,血压控制,心脏病预防,甚至更多。

似乎没有添加中等鳄梨的卡路里会导致体重增加,但是鳄梨比其他水果包含更多的脂肪卡路里,应考虑适当的比例。

  1. US Department of Agriculture. FoodData Central. Accessed May 4, 2020. //fdc.nal.usda.gov.
  2. Dreher ML, Davenport AJ. Hass 鳄梨 composition and potential health effects. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(7):738-750. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3664913/pdf/bfsn53_738.pdf
  3. US Department of 健康 and Human Services; USDA. 2015-2020 Dietary guidelines for Americans. 8thed. Accessed May 5, 2020. //health.gove/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines.
  4. American Heart Association. The American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations. Accessed May 6, 2020. //www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/aha-diet-and-lifestyle-recommendations
  5. Fulgoni VL, Dreher M, Davenport AJ. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National 健康 and 营养 Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008. Nutr J. 2013;2:12. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3545982/pdf/1475-2891-12-1.pdf
  6. Wang L, Bordi PL, Fleming JA, Hill AM, Kris-Etherton PM. Effect of a moderate-fat diet with and without 鳄梨s on lipoprotein particle number, size, and subclasses in overweight and obese adults: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Heart Assoc.2015;4(1):1355. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4330060/pdf/jah3-4-e001355.pdf
  7. Mahmassani HA, Avendano EE, Raman G, Johnson EJ. Avocado consumption and risk factors for heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018; 107(4):523-536. //academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/107/4/523/4964644
  8. Peou S, Milliard-Hasting B, Shah SA. Impact of 鳄梨-enriched diets on plasma lipoproteins: a meta-analysis. J Clin Lipidol. 2016;10(1):161-171. //www.lipidjournal.com/action/showPdf?pii=S1933-2874%2815%2900427-4
  9. Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, et al. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:3-10. //www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM200101043440101
  10. Heskey C, Oda K, Sabate J. Avocado intake, and longitudinal weight and body mass index changes in an adult cohort. Nutrients. 2019;11(3):691. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6471050/pdf/nutrients-11-00691.pdf
  11. Wien M, Haddad E, Oda K, Sabate J. A randomized 3×3 crossover study to evaluate the effect of Hass 鳄梨 intake on post-ingestive satiety, glucose and insulin levels, and subsequent energy intake in overweight adults. Nutr J. 2013;12:155. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4222592/pdf/1475-2891-12-155.pdf
  12. Zhu L, Huang Y, Edirisinghe I, Park E, Burton-Freeman B. Using the 鳄梨 to test the satiety effects of a fat-fiber combination in place of carbohydrate energy in a breakfast meal in overweight and obese men and women: a randomized clinical trial. Nutrients. 2019;11(5):952. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6567160/pdf/nutrients-11-00952.pdf
  13. Park E, Edirisinghe I, Burton-Freeman B. Avocado fruit on postprandial markers of cardio-metabolic risk: a randomized controlled dose response trial in overweight and obese men and women. Nutrients. 2018;10(9):1287. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6164649/pdf/nutrients-10-01287.pdf
  14. Scott TM, Rasmussen HM, Chen O, Johnson EJ. Avocado consumption increases macular pigment density in older adults: a randomized, controlled trial. Nutrients. 2017;23(9):919. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622679/pdf/nutrients-09-00919.pdf
48分享:
你也许也喜欢